Based on the experience from runoff and groundwater recharge simulation a model system has been developed for terrestrial, hydrochemical, and hydrological simulations. The system emphasizes the role of temporary or long term storage in the aquifers of a basin and, separately, accounts for each rainfall or snowmelt event from its entrance into the ground until mixing in the river system. The model is primarily intended for simulation of natural short term variations in alkalinity and pH in running waters. The hydrochemical processes are modelled in a semi-empirical way without assumption of complete hydrochemichal mass-balance. In the paper a brief hydrochemical background is given, and a model with two alternative hydrochemical sub-structures is described. Examples of daily simulations of runoff alkalinity and pH from three different basins are given.
- Received March 21, 1985.
- © IWA Publishing 1985