There is a distinctive difference in hydraulic properties between the upper horizons of Scandinavian till soil and the deeper C-horizon. The hydraulic conductivity has been studied in different soil profile types, mainly Podzolic variants. In the topsoil there are correlations from grain size and porosity to hydraulic conductivity. Both porosity and hydraulic conductivity are stratified with depth. Often high conductivity appears in the upper soil horizons decreasing with depth to low values at about one metre. This pattern varies with soil type. The soils vary with topographic location as does the groundwater level.
Published data on hydraulic conductivity in the C-horizon of sandy-silty tills in Scandinavia covers a wide range, from about 5 × 10−9 m/s to 5 × 10−4 m/s, with a mean of 3 × 10−6 m/s. The correlation between porosity and hydraulic conductivity, as well as between mean grain size and hydraulic conductivity, is weak in the C-horizon. It is concluded that the sediment structure has a decisive influence on the hydraulic conductivity of till. A model of the relationship between fabric (in relation to water flow direction), the porosity in the poresize interval 30-95 μm and the hydraulic conductivity is presented.
- Received January 19, 1990.
- Accepted March 20, 1990.
- © IWA Publishing 1990