An operational model for estimation of frost heave in field where stratified soil profile appears is presented. The model is developed from the research model described in part B. Soil layers are first classified into frost-susceptible layers (FSL) or non-frost-susceptible layers (NFSL). In an FSL, both heat flow and water flow are considered and ice lensing can occur. In a NFSL, only heat flow is possible and no ice lensing is allowed. The governing equations for heat and mass transfer are established for the time period when the frost front is moving within FSL. Capillarity and unsaturation are also considered. The operational model is verified by field measurements of heave amounts. Examples of application are given.
- Received July 4, 1994.
- Revision received September 10, 1994.
- Accepted September 26, 1994.
- © IWA Publishing 1995