A three-dimensional numerical model was used to model water circulation and spatial variation of temperature in Lake Sperillen in Norway. A winter situation was simulated, with thermal stratification and ice cover. The numerical model solved the Navier-Stokes equations on a 3D unstructured non-orthogonal grid with hexahedral cells. The SIMPLE method was used for the pressure coupling and the k-ε model was used to model turbulence, with a modification for density stratification due to the vertical temperature profile. The results were compared with field measurements of the temperature in the lake, indicating the location of the water current. Reasonably good agreement was found.
- Received March 10, 1999.
- Revision received June 29, 1999.
- Accepted October 11, 1999.
- © IWA Publishing 2000