An extensive research programme has been carried through in 2007–2009 on the ice cover geophysics in Lake Kilpisjärvi, located at 69 °03′N 20 °50′E, 473 m above sea level, and about 60 km from the shore of the Norwegian Sea. The surface area of the lake is 37.1 km2, and the maximum depth is 57 m. Data were collected of ice, snow and weather conditions with an automatic ice station in the lake. The heat budget together with ice structure, growth and melting was analysed. It was dominated by the radiation balance, down to −50 W m−2 in fall and up to 100 W m−2 in summer. Turbulent heat fluxes were significant before freeze-up in fall (absolute values up to 30 W m−2), but in the ice season they were small except for an occasional sensible heat flux which was large due to warm air advection. The evolution of ice thickness served as a very good condition for the total surface heat flux, and was found to be consistent with the ice station time series of air–ice heat fluxes.
- arctic lake
- field data
- ice formation
- ice melting
- ice thickness
- First received 20 February 2016.
- Accepted in revised form 17 August 2016.
- © IWA Publishing 2016